A fiber laser cutting machine is a technological revolution in metal material processing. The fiber laser cutter is more and more popular among domestic and foreign users due to their high level of flexibility, fast cutting speed, high processing efficiency, and short product cycle.
The laser cutting machine has no cutting force, no deformation in processing, no tool wear, and good product consistency. Whether it is for the processing of simple or complex parts, fiber laser machines can achieve rapid cutting at one time. Today we will talk about the complete knowledge of fiber laser cutting machines.
Part1: How does a fiber laser cutting machine work
Fiber laser cutting machine is a laser cutting machine that uses a fiber laser generator as a light source. It uses a high-power and high-density laser beam to scan the surface of the material. So that the material reaches the vaporization temperature in an instant, causing evaporation and forming holes.
Then the fiber laser cutter takes this as the starting point. According to the shape requirements of the work piece, the laser beam and the work piece move relatively to each other in a certain motion track to form a slit. And then the molten or other substances are blown away from the slit with high-pressure gas. This cutting method uses an invisible laser beam to replace the traditional mechanical knife. And it has the characteristics of fast cutting speed, narrow cutting seam, and smooth cutting.
Part2: Common classification of fiber laser cutting machine
The fiber laser cutting machine is essentially a CNC machine for processing metal materials. But in order to facilitate the user’s use and choice, he is usually classified in the market. The following are several common classification methods for a fiber laser cutter.
Firstly, from the perspective of the shape of the processing material of the laser machine, the laser machine includes a tube laser cutting machine, a sheet laser cutting machine, and a plate and tube fiber laser cutting machine.
Secondly, from the processing power of the fiber laser cutter, the laser cutting machine includes high power laser cutting machines, low power laser cutting machines, and total power laser cutting machines.
Then from the appearance of the laser cutting machine, the laser machine includes a protective fiber laser cutting machine and an open platform laser cutting machine. In fact, no matter what kind of laser cutting machine, it can easily achieve any cutting on metal materials.
In addition, we also provide customized fiber laser cutters. Whether it is various parts of the machine, working area, processing functions, etc., we can customize according to the specific processing requirements of users.
Part3. Fiber laser cutting machine main technical parameters
Part4：Introduction of core components of fiber laser cutting machine
We all know that the fiber laser cutting machine is a highly efficient whole. And it includes various precision parts. The quality of these core parts directly affects the performance of the entire CNC equipment. And it directly affects the service life of the fiber laser cutting machine. Then let’s take a look at the core components of the fiber laser cutting machine.
The laser is the core “power source” of the laser cutting machine. Just like the car engine, it is also an expensive component in the fiber laser cutting machine. The laser can directly affect the cutting efficiency of the equipment, the cutting quality, and the service life of the whole machine. Therefore, the laser has become one of the most important factors when purchasing equipment.
The laser head is the output device of the fiber laser cutting machine. It mainly includes a nozzle, focus lens and focuses tracking system. The cutting head of the laser cutting machine will walk according to the set cutting track. Therefore, we should adjust and control the height of the laser cutting head according to the different cutting materials, cutting thicknesses, and cutting methods.
The control system is the dominant operating system of the fiber laser cutting machine. It mainly controls the machine tool to realize the movement of the X, Y, and Z axes. And it also controls the output power of the laser. Its quality determines the stability of the operating performance of the fiber laser cutter. Through the precise control of the software, the accuracy and cutting effect can be effectively improved.
The motor of the laser cutting machine is the core component of the motion system. The performance of the motor directly affects the production efficiency and the final product processing effect. Currently, commonly used motors include stepper motors and servo motors. Users often choose the right motor according to their specific processing needs, such as industry type, product nature, budget, processing material, etc.
Tips: The stepping motor has the features of fast starting speed and sensitive response. And it is suitable for engraving processing and cutting processing with low requirements. Servo motor has the features of fast movement, stable movement, high load, stable performance, smooth edges of processed products, fast cutting speed; high price. And it is suitable for industries and products with high processing requirements.
Fiber laser cutting machines have very high requirements for machine bed stability. And high-precision and high-stability machine tools are conducive to improving the processing accuracy of laser cutting. The mainstream machine tools currently on the market include gantry type, cantilever type, beam type, and so on.
Different machine tools correspond to different processing fields. Beam type machine tools are mainly used for material cutting for large-scale manufacturers. But in the automotive industry, the three-dimensional machine tool is common.
The quality of the laser lens directly affects the output power of the laser. And it also affects the performance of the whole machine. Moreover, the most used laser cutting machine kit in the entire fiber laser cutting equipment is the laser lens.
Therefore, the laser lens is not only one of the core components of the fiber laser machine. And it is also one of the vulnerable parts. Many optical devices contain laser lenses, and different lenses have different functions, including full-reflection lenses, semi-reflection lenses, focusing lenses, and so on.
The water chiller has two main functions. The first is to cool the laser generator. We all know that a laser is a device that converts electrical energy into light energy, and the remaining energy is converted into heat. The water chiller can take away the excess heat to keep the laser working normally.
In addition, the chiller also cools the light path reflector and focusing the mirror outside the machine tool. The purpose is to ensure a stable beam transmission quality. And it can effectively prevent the lens from being deformed or broken due to excessive temperature.
Part5：Processing advantages of fiber laser cutting machine
We all know that fiber laser cutter is an advanced CNC cutting equipment. Especially it is very common in industrial processing applications. The fiber laser cutter can not only meet the processing needs of users efficiently. It can also achieve high-precision cutting quality.
Therefore, it is loved by users in various industries. Traditional cutting methods can also realize the metal cutting with the used cutting machine such as a plasma cutting machine, YAG laser cutting machine, co2 cutting machines, etc.
Why choose a fiber laser cutter instead of the used fiber laser cutting machine. What are the specific processing advantages of fiber laser cutting machine? Today we will take a comparative approach to analyze the processing advantages of fiber laser cutting machines.
Fiber laser cutting machine VS YAG laser cutting machine
- Cutting speed: The speed of the fiber laser cutting machine is 4-5 times that of YAG, which is suitable for mass processing and production.
- Cost of use: The cost of using a fiber laser cutting machine is less than that of YAG solid laser cutting
- Photoelectric conversion efficiency: The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the fiber laser cutting machine is about 10 times that of YAG.
Fiber laser cutting machine VS CO2 laser cutter
- Extremely high cutting speed: The cutting speed of the fiber laser cutter is twice that of the same power CO2 laser cutting machine.
- Extremely high stability: Fiber laser cutting machine adopts the world’s top imported fiber laser. And it has the features of stable performance. Besides that longer service life of key components can reach 100,000 hours.
- Very high electro-optical conversion efficiency: The optical-electric conversion efficiency of the fiber laser cutting machine is about 30%. And it is 3 times higher than that of the CO2 laser cutting machine.
- Very low cost: The power consumption of fiber laser cutting machine is only 20-30% of that of similar CO2 laser cutting machine.
- Excellent beam quality: The fiber laser machine has a smaller focus spot and finer cutting lines, so the processing quality is better.
- Very low maintenance cost: The fiber laser cutting machine adopts optical fiber transmission, no reflective lens, no need to adjust the optical path. Therefore, it can save a lot of maintenance costs.
Fiber laser cutting machine VS plasma cutting machine
- Abundant types of processing materials. Fiber laser cutting machine can realize a variety of metal materials. And it can also process materials with high hardness, high brittleness, and high melting point.
- High processing quality. The fiber laser cutter adopts non-contact processing. There is no mechanical stress on the workpiece during processing, so the processing quality is high.
- High level of automation. The fiber laser cutter adopts a special control system. And it can facilitate processing such as arrangement and modification. Therefore, the level of automation is relatively high.
- High safety and environmental protection factor. The fiber laser cutting machine can be fully enclosed for processing. It has the advantages of no pollution, low noise, safety, and environmental protection.
- Low maintenance cost. The fiber laser cutter adopts optical fiber transmission, no reflective lens, no need to adjust the optical path. Therefore, it can save a lot of maintenance costs.
Part6：Common processing materials of fiber laser machines
In the 21st century, it is known that fiber laser cutter is one of the more popular industrial equipment. With the advantages of a wide range of processing materials, powerful functions, fast processing speed, and good cutting quality. Fiber laser cutting machine is chosen by more and more users at home and abroad. So for such a powerful and popular laser cutting machine, what do you think. And what kind of materials are suitable for fiber laser cutting machines? Follow me to find out.
The cutting material range of fiber laser cutting machine can cover most metal materials. Such as stainless steel, carbon steel, galvanized sheet, copper, aluminum, etc. The following is an introduction to the common processing materials of fiber laser cutting machine.
The thickness of the laser cut carbon steel plate can reach 25 mm or even larger. Moreover, the cutting seam of carbon steel can be controlled in a satisfactory width range by using the oxidation flux cutting mechanism.
Tips: The main thing to note is that when the fiber laser cutter cuts carbon steel, the cutting edge will be slightly oxidized when oxygen is used as the processing gas. When cutting carbon steel plates with a thickness of 4 mm, nitrogen can be used as a processing gas for high-pressure cutting.
In this case, the cutting edge will not be oxidized. When cutting carbon steel plates with a thickness of more than 10 mm, oiling the surface of the work piece can get better results.
Stainless steel is the most common processing material in various industries. It is also the most common fiber cutting material. When the fiber laser cutter is cutting stainless steel. If the edge oxidation is not affected, using nitrogen as an auxiliary gas can obtain a cutting edge without oxidation and burrs.
Moreover, coating the oil film on the surface of the plate will get a better perforation. And it can’t affect without reducing the processing quality either.
Copper and Brass
Both copper and brass have high reflectivity and very good thermal conductivity. Therefore, when cutting brass with a thickness of less than 1 mm, it is recommended to use nitrogen cutting to achieve better cutting results. When cutting copper with a thickness of less than 2 mm, we should choose the oxygen.
For the processing gas with oxygen as auxiliary gas to achieve the desired processing effect. Moreover, copper and brass can be cut only when a “reflection absorption” device is installed on the system. Otherwise, the reflection will destroy the optical components.
Aluminum and aluminum alloy
Aluminum is also a material with high reflectivity and thermal conductivity. But for fiber laser cutting machine, aluminum with thickness below 6 mm can be cut. This depends on the alloy type and laser capabilities. It should be noted that when cutting with oxygen, the cutting surface is rough and hard.
When using nitrogen, the cutting surface is smooth. Pure aluminum is very difficult to cut because of its high purity. Aluminum can only be cut when a “reflection absorption” device is installed on the fiber laser cutting machine system. Otherwise, the reflection will destroy the optical components.
In addition, a fiber laser cutter can also cut most of the galvanized sheets, gold, silver, titanium, titanium alloys, nickel alloys, and so on.
For the high anti-metal materials mentioned above. When we perform fiber laser cutting, we recommend users not to cut aluminum, copper, and other metal materials for a long time. Because these materials are all highly reflective materials.
And the wavelength of the laser is not very suitable for the absorption of these materials. The absorption rate of beam energy is very low. And a lot of energy will be reflected damage the protective lens in front of the laser head. Therefore, it will increase the consumption of consumables. If you want to cut aluminum and copper, additional special protective devices must be made.
Part7：Application of the fiber laser cutting machine
Construction machinery industry
In the construction machinery industry, the fiber laser cutting machine is common. When the fiber laser cuts a circular hole and faces a specific plate thickness, the fiber laser is very useful. As long as the diameter of the work piece circular hole is greater than or equal to the corresponding minimum diameter. And the roughness and diameter are within the guaranteed capacity of the cutting machine.
Then, laser cutting can be used directly, eliminating the need for drilling procedures and improving labor productivity. For some work pieces with many holes, use the dotting function of the fiber laser cutting machine to determine the position of the hole.
Thus, it can save the time of positioning the hole in the subsequent drilling process and the manufacturing cost of the drilling template. Besides that, it not only improves production efficiency but also improves the accuracy of the product.
Agricultural machinery industry
There are many types of sheet metal processing parts for agricultural machinery products. And the update speed is very fast. The traditional sheet metal processing parts of agricultural machinery products usually use punching machines. And it consumes a lot of molds. If the processing of parts still stays in the traditional way, it will seriously restrict the upgrading of products.
Laser processing can use modern computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing software to cut sheets of various shapes. The use of laser processing not only has high processing speed, high efficiency, and low cost. And it does not need to replace molds or tools, thereby shortening production preparation time.
It is easy to realize continuous processing, short laser beam transposition time, and high production efficiency. And it can carry out the alternate installation of various work pieces. When processing the work piece, you can unload the finished parts and install the work piece to be processed to realize parallel processing.
Household appliances industry
Many corners in the automotive industry, such as car doors, car exhaust pipes, etc., need to be processed after they are formed. The accuracy is difficult to achieve at first, and the efficiency is high. The robot laser cutting machine can be used for batch processing quickly.
The automotive industry
Household appliances are mainly including various metal sheets. Before the stamping and drawing process, a fiber laser cutting machine can process the panel samples to quickly develop new products. The cutting speed of laser processing equipment is extremely fast. And it can greatly improve the processing efficiency.
At the same time, the cutting precision of the laser processing equipment is extremely high. And it can improve the yield of range hoods and burners. For some special-shaped products, fiber laser cutting machines have unique advantages. And it mainly includes power distribution cabinets, filing cabinets, etc. They are all standardized thin plates, which require high efficiency.
The advertising industry is more customized. And the traditional methods are very inefficient. Adopting the fiber laser cutting machine has many advantages. No matter how thick the sheet is, and no matter how many fonts, the laser cutting machine will satisfy you.
Now there are more and more houses and decorations. And the demand for kitchen-related products is increasing. The laser cutting machine is suitable for cutting thin stainless steel with high speed, high precision, and high satisfaction. Besides, it can realize customized and personalized product development.
Sheet metal processing industry
The processing is a variety of sheets, a variety of different graphics cutting parts, the characteristics of laser cutting machines are in full swing in this industry.
Cabinet includes power distribution cabinets, file cabinets, etc. And all of these are standardized production of thin plates and require efficiency. It is more suitable to use a four-station or six-station fiber laser cutting machine with high efficiency.
As the country attaches’ importance to sports health and the development of personal health concepts. Then the square fitness equipment and home fitness equipment have gradually developed. And the demand has gradually increased. Basically some pipe cutting, it is more convenient and quick to use a pipe laser cutting machine.
Part8：Common factors affecting the cutting quality of fiber laser cutting machines
The fiber laser cutting machine cutting quality will be affected by many factors during processing. These factors mainly include cutting speed, cutting height, and cutting power. Besides that, it also includes a nozzle model, focus position, auxiliary gas selection, cutting air pressure, etc. Next, let us know how these factors affect the cutting quality of the laser cutting machine.
The influence of cutting speed on cutting quality
Especially for metal materials, cutting speed has a great influence on cutting quality. Under the condition that other process variables are kept constant, the laser cutting speed can have a relative adjustment range and still maintain a satisfactory cutting quality.
This adjustment range is slightly better than thick parts when cutting thin metals. Sometimes, the slow cutting speed will also cause the hot melt material to be discharged. These materials will ablate the surface of the work piece and make the cut surface rough. Therefore, the cutting speed has a certain influence on the cutting quality.
The influence of focus position adjustment on cutting quality
After determining which focal length lens to use, the relative position of the focal point and the work piece surface is particularly important to ensure the cutting quality. As we all know that the power density is high at the focus. In most cases, the focus position is just on the surface of the work piece during cutting or slightly below the surface.
In the whole cutting process, ensuring the constant relative position of the focus and the work piece is important. This condition can obtain stable cutting quality. Sometimes, the lens is heated due to poor cooling during operation. And this will cause the focal length to change, which requires timely adjustment of the focal position.
When the focus is in a better position, the slit is smaller and the efficiency is higher. And better cutting speed can obtain better cutting results. In most applications, the beam focus is adjusted to just under the nozzle. The distance between the nozzle and the surface of the work piece is generally about 1.5 mm.
The influence of auxiliary gas pressure on cutting quality
In general, auxiliary gas is required for material cutting. And there are many types of auxiliary gas and different pressures. Usually, the auxiliary gas is ejected coaxially with the laser beam to protect the lens from contamination. And it can blow away the slag at the bottom of the cutting area.
For non-metallic materials and some metallic materials, compressed air, or inert gas is used to process melted and evaporated materials. At the same time, it can prevent excessive burning in the cutting area. For most metal laser cutting, active gas such as oxygen is used to form an oxidative exothermic reaction with the hot metal. This additional heat can increase the cutting speed by 1/3~1/2.
Under the premise of ensuring auxiliary gas, the gas pressure is also an extremely important factor. When cutting thin materials at high speed, it requires higher gas pressure. And it can prevent slag from sticking on the back of the incision. When the material thickness increases or the cutting speed is slow, the gas pressure should be appropriately reduced. In order to prevent frosting of the plastic trimming, it is better to cut with lower gas pressure.
The practice of laser cutting shows that when the auxiliary gas is oxygen, its purity has a significant impact on the cutting quality. A 2% reduction in oxygen purity will reduce the cutting speed by 50% and result in a significant deterioration of the cut quality.
The influence of laser output power on cutting quality
For continuous-wave output lasers, the laser power will have an important impact on cutting. In actual operation, a higher power is often set to obtain a higher cutting speed or to cut thicker materials. But when the output power is increased, the mode often becomes slightly worse. The practice has proved that under the condition of less than high power, higher power density is obtained at the focal point and better cutting quality is obtained.
In summary, the factors that affect the cutting quality of laser cutting machines are more complicated. But the four factors such as cutting speed, focus position, auxiliary gas, and laser power have a greater impact. If the cutting quality is found to be significantly deteriorated during the cutting process, we should check and adjust the factors discussed above in time.
Part9：How to choose a suitable fiber laser cutting machine？
Before we choose a suitable fiber laser cutting machine, we need to clarify our processing needs. Secondly, we must have a certain understanding of the machine itself, including its performance, power, and processing materials. In addition, it is necessary to have a certain understanding of the manufacturer of the cutting machine, including the brand and after-sales. Let’s take a closer look together.
1. Processing materials
For processing materials, we should consider the size, thickness, and characteristics of the material. In order to determine the power of the equipment and the size of the workbench.
2. Manufacturer Brand
After clarifying our specific processing needs. We can choose different manufacturers to understand. If possible, we can go to the laser machine manufacturer for field inspections. In this way, you can have a deeper understanding of the manufacturer’s machine types, processing functions, after-sales service, etc.
3. Selection of laser power
Power is very critical. There are many types of laser cutting machines power from 500-8000W on the market. And it mainly including 500w fiber laser cutting machine, 1000w fiber laser cutter, and so on. 500w fiber laser cutter is very common. Different power can cut the maximum thickness of the material. In addition, choosing the right power is very helpful to the cost control of the enterprise.
4. Selection of laser cutting machine parts
Fiber laser cutting machine has some main components such as laser, laser head, beam, guide rail, reducer, rack, motor, and so on. There are also different brand suppliers for each accessory. How to choose the most suitable brand from a wide range of brands What about accessories?
First, we must proceed from our actual production, on the basis of being able to meet our own processing needs, according to budget, processing characteristics, and other factors to select suitable accessories.
5. After-sales service
After-sales service only needs to include the use, installation, commissioning, repair, and maintenance of the machine. The after-sales service of different manufacturers is different. And the product warranty period is also different.
DXTECH laser not only provides customers with effective daily maintenance but also provides professional training systems for machines and laser software to help customers master the skills of using fiber laser cutting machines as soon as possible. In addition, we can also provide timely solutions during the use of the machine.
Above are the complete guides we talked about fiber laser cutting machine. Whether it is for you to understand the laser cutter, use the machine, and purchase the machine, it will be of great help. If you want to know more about other aspects of the fiber laser cutting machine, please leave us a message. Next, we will continue to update the relevant knowledge about the laser cutting machine.