The choice of the fiber laser cutting machine’s internal components will primarily affect the cutting machine’s efficiency and quality. So it will be constructive for you to understand its components before you buy a fiber laser cutting machine. So what are the common components of fiber laser cutting machines? Let’s take a look at it together.
The components of fiber laser cutting machine mainly include laser transmitter, cutting head, beam transmission component, machine tool table, numerical control system, computer (hardware, software), cooler, protective gas cylinder, dust collector, air dryer and slag discharge machine.
Laser generator is a device that generates a laser light source. For the purpose of laser cutting, except for a few occasions where we use YAG solid-state lasers, most of them use CO2 gas lasers with higher electrical-optical conversion efficiency and higher output power. Because laser cutting requires high beam quality, not all lasers can be used for cutting.
It mainly includes a nozzle, focus lens, and focuses tracking system, and other parts.
The cutting head drive device is used to drive the cutting head to move along the Z-axis according to the program and is composed of a servo motor and a screw or gear, and other transmission parts.
There are three main types of nozzles: parallel, convergent and conical.
(2) Focusing lens
Use the energy of the laser beam to cut, and the original beam emitted by the laser must pass through a lens to focus high energy to form a dense spot. The mid-telephoto lens is suitable for cutting thick plates and does not require the tracking system’s high pitch stability. A short focus lens is only suitable for cutting thin plates below D3. The short focus has strict requirements on the tracking system’s distance stability, but it can significantly reduce the laser’s output power requirements.
(3) Tracking system
The focus tracking system of a fiber laser cutting machine is generally composed of a focus cutting head and a tracking sensor system. The cutting head includes light guide focusing, water cooling, air blowing, and mechanical adjustment parts.
The sensor is composed of a sensing element and an amplifying control part. The tracking system is entirely different according to the other sensing elements. Here, there are mainly two types of tracking systems. One is the capacitive sensor tracking system, also known as the non-contact tracking system. The other is the inductive sensor tracking system, also known as the contact tracking system.
3. Beam transmission components
External light path: Refractive mirror, used to guide the laser in the required direction. In order to prevent the beam path from malfunctioning, we must use a protective cover to protect all mirrors, and we should introduce a clean, positive pressure protective gas to protect the lens from contamination. A set of lenses with good performance will focus a beam with no divergence angle into an infinitely small spot. Generally, we use a lens with a focal length of 5.0 inches. The 7.5-inch lens is only used for thick materials> 12mm.
4. Machine tool workbench
Fiber laser cutting machine has very high requirements on the machine tool’s stability, and the high precision and high stability of the machine tool is conducive to improving the accuracy of laser cutting. At present, the mainstream machine tools on the market include gantry type, cantilever type, beam type, etc. Different machine tools have other functions. For example, beam-type machine tools are mainly used for material cutting of large manufacturers. There are also models for specific fields, such as three-dimensional fiber laser cutting. , used primarily in the automotive industry, etc.
5. CNC system
The control system is the dominant operating system of the fiber laser cutting machine. It mainly controls the machine tool to realize the X, Y, and Z axes’ movement and holds the laser’s output power. Its quality determines the stability of the operating performance of the fiber laser cutting machine. Through the precise control of the software, the accuracy and cutting effect can be effectively improved. Currently commonly used Beckhoff CNC system, PA CNC system, Farianka system, etc.
6. Cooling system
Water chiller: used to cool the laser generator. A laser is a device that converts electrical energy into light energy. For example, the conversion rate of a CO2 gas laser is 20%, and the remaining power is converted into heat. The cooling water takes away the excess heat to keep the laser generator working usually. The chiller also cools the external light path reflector and focuses on the machine tool to ensure stable beam transmission quality and effectively prevent the lens from becoming deformed or broken due to excessive temperature.
7. Gas cylinder
Gas cylinders include working medium gas cylinders and auxiliary gas cylinders for fiber laser cutting machines, we usually use it to supplement the industrial gas for laser oscillation and supply additional gas for the cutting head.
8. Dust removal system
We extract and filter the smoke and dust generated during processing to make the exhaust gas discharge in line with environmental protection standards.
9. Air cooling dryer filter
Air cooling dryer filter is used to supply clean and dry air to the laser generator and beam path to keep the path and mirror working usually.
10. Slag discharge machine
Eliminate leftovers and scraps generated during processing.
The laser beam parameters, the machine’s performance and accuracy, and the CNC system are all crucial factors that can directly affect the efficiency and quality of the fiber laser cutting machine, especially for parts with higher cutting accuracy or greater thickness. Therefore, when choosing a fiber laser cutting machine, you should choose a suitable fiber laser cutting machine according to factors such as the product range, the cutting material, and the material’s thickness.
Many people often ask me a question: What is a fiber laser cutting machine? The fiber laser cutting machine is actually a kind of using a focused high-power-density laser beam to irradiate the workpiece so that the irradiated material quickly melts, vaporizes, ablates, or reaches the ignition point, and at the same time blows away the molten material with the high-speed airflow coaxial with the beam. To realize a kind of machine that cuts the workpiece.
Laser cutting processing is to replace the traditional mechanical knife with an invisible beam. It has the characteristics of high precision, fast cutting, not limited to the cutting pattern, automatic typesetting, saving material, smooth cutting, and low processing cost. It will gradually improve or replace it. Traditional metal cutting process equipment. The mechanical part of the laser cutter head has no contact with the workpiece and will not scratch the surface of the workpiece during work; the laser cutting speed is fast, the incision is smooth and flat, and generally does not require subsequent processing; the cutting heat affected zone is small, the plate deformation is small, and the slit is narrow ( 0.1mm~0.3mm); the incision has no mechanical stress, no shearing burr; high processing accuracy, good repeatability, no damage to the surface of the material; CNC programming, can process any plan, can cut the entire board with a large format, without Opening the mold saves time and economy.
At present, we use fiber laser cutting machines widely in the processing of metal and non-metal materials, which greatly reduces the processing time, reduces the processing cost, and improves the quality of the workpiece.The industries involved include handicrafts, electronics, toys, sheet metal, hardware products, jewelry, nameplates, advertising, packaging steel structures, precision machinery, auto parts, glasses, and other industries. Fiber laser cutting products usually include stainless steel plates, iron plates, aluminum—materials, ceramic wafers, silicon wafers, diamonds, etc.
When the fiber laser cutting equipment is working, it is perilous if it fails. Professionals must train novices to operate independently. Let’s learn the details of the safe work of the fiber laser cutting machine.
1. Comply with the general safety operation regulations of cutting machines. Start the laser strictly following the laser start procedure.
2. The operator must be trained to be familiar with the fiber laser cutting machine’s structure and performance and master the relevant knowledge of the operating system.
3. Wear labor protection equipment according to the regulations and wear protective glasses that meet the laser beam regulations.
4. Do not process material before it is clear whether we can irradiate or heate it by laser to avoid the potential hazards of smoke and steam.
5. The fiber laser cutting machine can also be said that when you start the laser engraving machine, the operator is not allowed to leave the post or be entrusted to take care of it without authorization. If it is necessary to go, the operator should stop it or cut off the power switch.
6. Keep the fire extinguisher within easy reach; turn off the laser or shutter when not working; do not place a paper, cloth, or other combustible materials near the unprotected laser beam.
7. When you found an abnormality of the laser equipment during the processing, you should shut down the machine immediately. The fault should be eliminated or reported to the supervisor in time.
8. Keep the laser, the bed, and the surrounding area clean, orderly, and free of oil pollution, and stack the workpieces, plates, and waste materials according to regulations.
9. Observe high-voltage safety regulations when repairing. You must carry out every certain period of operation under rules and procedures.
10. After turning on the machine, manually start the device in the X and Y directions at low speed, and check whether there is any abnormality.
11. After inputting the new part program, test runs it first and check its operation.
12. When the fiber laser cutting machine is working, pay attention to the machine tool’s operation to avoid causing accidents by the cutting machine going out of the effective stroke range or two collisions.